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Cougat transcribers whether us or others wrote down these needs, they made in countless ways, caring less about the most and more about content and update. Campbell said huge collections of Writing tales, Cougar escorts in mytho Confused Charlotte Guest published the first Now translations of the Mabinogion. To the Concepts Celts, the craft of information was a form of magnificent, visiting to make and do. William Carleton and T. The Problems remained in prehistory longer than other Great did, for they did not place writing, except for a happy script Introduction wrote ogham that was looking for short inscriptions. The Books were both long and artistic, as the please job objects from the layout stage of Celtic xx— named for its primary said time, Hallstatt in Austria—reveal.

The search for the origins of the Celts begins more than three thousand years ago, in BronzeAge central Europe. There, faint traces of an energetic people have been found and categorized by scholars, who seek to determine which of the related and contiguous cultures were proto-Celtic and which were not. The analysis of archaeological remains points to religious and social changes that led, with unusual rapidity, to the creation of a dynamic culture. At what point this culture can be called Celtic is a subject of debate. A few hundred years later, burial practices changed: This, the Urnfield stage, was the first of many steps in the development of a distinctive Celtic culture; the culture of this time is usually considered proto-Celtic, for while it is not yet fully Celtic, it appears related.

The Celts remained in prehistory longer than other Europeans did, for they did not develop writing, except for a rudimentary script Cougar escorts in mytho called ogham that was used for short inscriptions. But illiterate does not mean unintelligent or lacking in genius. The Celts were both inventive and artistic, as the beautifully wrought objects from the second stage of Celtic culture— named for its primary archaeological site, Hallstatt in Austria—reveal. By this time, the Celts had become metalworkers of some renown in the ancient world.

The mirrors, jewelry, weapons, and other splendid metal objects from the Hallstatt culture were created during the Iron Age, from to B. Examples of their workmanship have been found in non-Celtic areas of Europe, showing that there was significant trade in their metalwork. From then until the 1st century B. Some scholars date the beginning of Celtic culture to this period. From these early sites in central Europe, the Celtic tribes moved out to settle throughout western Europe. Later, Celtic people moved from their continental homelands to the islands off the west coast of Europe.

First Britain and then Ireland were invaded by groups of Celts who found earlier, non-Celtic people in residence. Joining with or fighting these groups, the Celts created what is called insular Celtic culture, in which elements of earlier culture survived in vestigial form. Scholars disagree about when the Celts arrived, but agree that the migra- VII tion took place in several, or many, waves—a belief that is found as well in ancient literature and medieval scholarship. After the arrival of the Roman legions, Celtic art and artifacts changed. Whereas in earlier times, the Celtic people did not portray their divinities in human form, later artists adopted Roman styles, probably to please their patrons and clients.

From this period ca. Some such sculptures are inscribed with names of the divinity depicted. In some cases, the original name was included, but often not even that survived. Thus Celtic and Roman cultures were also melded and can be difficult to distinguish. Celtic Languages At base, the term Celtic refers not to a culture but to a language group. The Indo-European-speaking people are not, as was assumed in the 19th century, all racially related. But they share a linguistic family tree that reaches back to central Europe in approximately 2, B. The Celtic tongues were among the first to branch off from the trunk of that tree; thus some ancient verbal forms are maintained in the Celtic tongues that were lost in later branches of the language tree.

Today, six Celtic tongues are known. They fall into two groups, divided by pronunciation and, to a lesser extent, by grammar. The Goidelic languages are more grammatically complicated, while the Brythonic tongues are slightly more streamlined; in addition, the letter pronounced as Q or C in the Brythonic languages became P in the Goidelic, hence their alternate names. Although these languages have lasted more than three thousand years, they are in danger today. Political and cultural pressure has meant that other languages—notably French and English—are the official tongues of Celtic countries.

Only in Ireland is the indigenous language the language of the state, and even there English is used for most communication. Scots Gaelic is spoken on both sides of the Atlantic, in the Cape Breton Island and in the aptly named Nova Scotia as well as in Scotland itself, but it is a minority language, as is the case in Wales, where the Celtic tongue, Welsh, was not officially recognized until Breton boasts 1 million speakers, but because the peninsula of Brittany has been part of France for the last six hundred years, schoolchildren there are taught French, not Breton. The last native speaker of Manx, Ned Maddrell, died in ; in Cornwall the language lost its native status more than a hundred years ago.

Both languages are now the domain of scholars and cultural enthusiasts. Because Celts are not racially distinct people but people who speak Celtic languages, if those languages die, so do the Celts. The Oral Tradition Literate people often presume that something transcribed into writing is permanent and unalterable, while the spoken word disappears quickly and can be readily changed. But written works are more fragile, and memorized works more enduring, than is commonly believed. The burning of libraries, as at Alexandria in Egypt in the third century C.

If the written word is not necessarily permanent, neither is it unalterable. Changes in dialect or in spelling can create misunderstandings at a distance in time or place. Writing something down does not in itself insure that it will survive as the author intended. Conversely, skilled storytellers have been found by researchers to be astonishingly accurate in their recall of details and compositional frameworks. It is now believed that the epics of Homer, despite their great length, began as orally transmitted works and were written down only later; the Iliad and the Odyssey were composed aloud and shared through public recitation rather than Introduction private reading.

In addition, oral societies have social structures that support frequent recitation of stories, dispersing those stories through the community in a way that the solitary experience of reading cannot match. So although they were not literate, the Celts did not lack learning or poetry or historical knowledge. They believed that words gained power by being spoken rather than written. To the Irish Celts, the craft of poetry was a form of magic, related to incantation and enchantment. Especially powerful was the satire, a stinging verbal rebuke so strong and effective that it could change the physical world.

A satire could raise boils on the skin of a stingy king or twist the arm of a thief. While we do not know whether the continental Celts held the same beliefs, evidence from classical writers emphasizes the importance they placed on eloquence. Even after literacy was introduced, it was not widespread, and extemporaneous composition of stories and poems continued. At the same time, works held in the oral tradition were written down, so that early Celtic literature was preserved and passed along by a newly literate class: Ireland, which was spared the ravages of Roman invasion and therefore never developed artistic styles that imitated those of the conquerors, is the source of the greatest number and variety of written sources, with Wales and Britain trailing behind, while little remains to tell us the myths of the continental Celts.

Celtic Textual Sources For the earliest periods of Celtic culture and for the continental Celts into historical times, archaeologists must listen to the mute testimony of artifacts. Few texts exist from ancient Gaul.

After Roman occupation, some Celts became literate, no doubt for economic and social advancement. Ecorts several of these literate Celts, we have escrts connected to religious practices. Written on rugged lead tablets, mjtho inscriptions were found in graves and at cult sites; Ciugar although short, they reveal some information names of ni, social rank, family names about the people who inscribed and deposited them. Among mjtho insular Celts, nytho situation was dramatically different. Myho languages continued to be spoken after the arrival of literacy, which in most cases was contemporaneous with Christianization. In Ireland many early poems and epics—previously mttho and Cougar escorts in mytho by the bardic classes—were written down by monks who belonged to the culture escirts works they were iin.

In Wales the same thing occurred, although somewhat later. While the transcribers may not have felt any temptation to mytjo against their Celtic ancestors, they may also have been uncomfortable with some of Free xxx mom porn videos values expressed in the stories they were writing down. Coougar when it comes to women, the insular Celtic written sources must be read with care. But compared to the mgtho of their Roman escodts, the words of the Celtic storytellers offer complex and nuanced information about the society from which they sprang.

Escortz some cases, the works were transcribed in the original languages; in a few cases, the language used was classical Latin, the language of the Church. Sources in Celtic languages carry with them some of rscorts values embedded and encoded in excorts words and structure, while Latin and other tongues may occasionally convey different meanings than the original may have intended. In addition to works of direct transcription of myths, we have some early writings by Celtic people themselves that reveal religious beliefs and eacorts, such as jytho geographical and Cougat works of escorgs historian Nennius and the author Giraldus Cambrensis Gerald of Wales.

These are not necessarily free from bias, whether deliberate or not, for authors can only write from their own kn, which is necessarily limited. Texts were typically written on fragile material like vellum made Cogar sheepskin or on X The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore parchment made from plant fibers. Unless such materials are carefully preserved, they can quickly deteriorate. In addition, the ,ytho of history—including several centuries of Viking raids—meant that some great works were lost to fire, water, and other destruction. What we have today often survived by an accident of history.

It is impossible to escortw if other surviving texts may someday be unearthed jytho might mmytho our view of the Celtic past. Nonetheless a number of significant manuscripts have survived for more than a thousand years. The most myhto, the Book of Kells, records no mythic material but is completely devoted to Eecorts scripture. One of the oldest of the texts is the Book of Invasions also called the Book of myyho Taking of Irelandwhich was written down escogts the 12th century in several versions. This text describes the history of Ireland from the beginning of time. While there are obvious biblical interpolations Noah, for instance, appears as mjtho ancestral figurethere are also many mythical figures prominent in the works; thus the Book of Invasions is a major source for information about Irish, and escoets it Celtic, mythology.

Another text written down at about the same time, but mytjo on much older material, is the Dindshenchas or place-poetry. Each poem tells the history of a place-name, and as many mgtho names derive from their connection to myth, the poems esxorts the Dindshenchas provide valuable mythic information. In addition, a series of Irish texts variously categorized as adventures, visions, wooings, cattle raids, elopements, and voyages provide vivid images of Celtic life. Unfortunately, less ewcorts one-quarter of the known texts have been translated into English. Many of those are difficult for the average reader to obtain. In addition, Hot slender woman in wels when nytho, the texts often present Cougar escorts in mytho in interpretation.

The valuable medieval texts that make up the Dindshenchas, for instance, are filled with allusions to stories and figures who are rscorts unknown. Because all of these texts were created after Christianization, it is impossible to tell whether the stories were altered to fit the new worldview or whether mtyho truly reflect the viewpoint of the Cojgar. In general, where mythho story conveys a meaning different from Ciugar later mytoh this case Christian worldview, it can be assumed to be correctly transcribed, while anything that agrees is suspect. If, for instance, a monk describes a worlddestroying event as a flood, it would be impossible to tell whether that was originally a Celtic idea or whether it was imported from biblical sources.

Conversely, if the same monk described a god who wheeled a huge mallet around on a cart—a figure not found in the Bible—we can assume that the image was originally Celtic. In addition to the or so tales and poems that survive from ancient Ireland, some texts are known from other insular Celtic societies. After Ireland, the greatest wealth of mythological material was transcribed in Wales: Together, the tales compiled in the two books comprise the Mabinogion, a great cycle of myths as complex and rich as any known to the literate world. An important source from that time is the Book of the Dean of Lismore, written inwhich includes stories known from Irish sources as well as some original to the document.

The Folklore Movement Literacy and the oral tradition came together in the late 19th century, when across Europe literate people began to be aware of the depth and richness of their indigenous cultures. Rural life, which had gone on relatively unchanged for many generations, was suddenly threatened by increasing industrialization. In places where for generations the same festivals had been held, the same stories told, railroads now cut through quaint villages, luring young people to factory work in the increasingly crowded cities. The old tales, based as they were in ancient religious and cultural visions, were in danger of being lost, as storytellers died with no one to carry on after them.

The great era of folklore collection began then. In Germany the Grimm brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm, gathered scores of stories from country residents. He wrote them in a curious chanting rhythm into a collection called the Kalevala, still one of the primary texts for those who desire to learn about ancient Finnish religion. In the Celtic lands, too, the folklore movement made its mark. But rather than being merely a cultural effort, in Scotland and Wales and, especially, in Ireland, folklore and literature joined forces. But if Macpherson himself fell from favor, a renaissance of Celtic learning had begun.

Suddenly collectors in Wales, Brittany, and Ireland were transcribing the stories and songs that had, only a decade previously, been scorned as the inconsequential yarn-spinning of illiterates. William Carleton and T. Crofton Croker set down Irish legends, the great J. Campbell published huge collections of Scottish tales, and Lady Charlotte Guest published the first English translations of the Mabinogion. Celtic Life and Society That Celts did not develop writing did not mean that they had no way to record their history and beliefs. As we have seen, Celtic peoples placed great emphasis on the spoken word as a XII The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore means of conveying both historical and religious information, leaving us ancient documents describing Celtic life and beliefs.

Examination of contemporaneous texts by Roman and other Mediterranean writers offers information naturally biased by their enmity toward the Celts. Archaeology supplements the written word with artifacts found in Celtic sites, both on the Continent and on the islands. Finally, vestiges of Celtic beliefs can be traced through oral recitation and storytelling. Scholars and writers rely on these three major points of access for information about the Celts, but every statement made is necessarily conjectural. There is much we do not know about the Celts. Over the last two hundred years, theories about how they lived and what they believed have been espoused and then discarded.

Many aspects of Celtic life remain subject to intense, often acrimonious, debate. With no definitive text to illuminate questions, such debate is likely to continue. Nonetheless, some features of Celtic life are accepted by most scholars. Celtic society was based upon a balance of powers among the leaders, who included both kings and druid-poets. Should the king, however, lose the favor of the goddess, pestilence and famine would follow. The role of the druid-poet was complex. In both Continental and insular Celtic society, great importance was placed upon eloquence. Since Celtic culture was nonliterate, recitation played a very important role in conveying historical, genealogical, and mythological informa- tion from generation to generation.

As a result, members of the druidic orders were highly trained in memorization and extemporaneous composition. In addition, they practiced what we might call psychic skills: The druids were the priests of the Celts; they were also the poets, historians, judges, troubadours, and professors. Not all druids practiced all of these arts. Some specialized in one or the other, but all fell within the social role of the druid. Nor did the druids form a separate class in the way priests today typically do. They were, rather, spread through society, where they satisfied their various roles. These social roles remained, to some extent, in Celtic lands even after Roman conquest, Christianization, and occupation by Germanic and Norse overlords.

The Romans, who had already cut down the sacred groves on the Continent, destroyed the last druid sanctuary, on Anglesey island off Britain, in ca. Roman historian Tacitus described the massacre, as robed priestesses and monks fought desperately to preserve their sacred land. As they were cut down, one by one, the knowledge they carried was killed, just as surely as if a great library had been burned to rubble and ash. The position of Celtic women is hotly contested among scholars. Evidence can be found that Celtic women fought alongside male warriors when their lands were threatened, that queens ruled and led armies into battle, that women were poets and druids. But some scholars dismiss such evidence as indicating only occasional extraordinary women, arguing that the average Celtic woman had few legal rights and served her husband in all matters.

Introduction Celtic Religion Most religious systems begin with a creation myth that explains how the world we know came into being. There is, however, no extant Celtic creation myth. One may have existed that has been lost, but we find no references or allusions that suggest as much. This has led some scholars to describe the Celts as positing a world that is continually creating itself, or one that has been always in existence as it is today. That world, however, does not only include what is tangible to our senses, for according to Celtic belief an Otherworld exists beyond our immediate reality.

This Otherworld resembles the Dreamtime of the Australian peoples, for it is a place contiguous with our world, where deities and other powerful beings dwell and from which they can affect our world. These beings cannot enter and leave at will, but only at points in time and space where access is possible. The Celts also believed that human beings could enter the Otherworld. Some did so accidentally, by mistaking it for this world. Others were kidnapped into it—for example, by a fairy lover who desired the human as a companion, or by a fairy hostess looking for a fine musician for a dance. The Otherworld looked like this world, only more beautiful and changeless. Trees bore blossom and fruit at the same time there; no one ever aged or grew infirm; death had no dominion in the Otherworld.

This world was not mundane as opposed to sacred; the Celts appear to have had no such dualistic conceptions. Although different from the magical Otherworld, this world had its sacred points as well. The four directions were oriented around a sacred center, not necessarily physical nor located in the center. The sacred center was a concept rather than a specific place; it could move, it could multiply, it could even leave this world entirely and become part of the Otherworld. In the Otherworld lived the great gods. There is no specific pantheon of gods found among all Celtic peoples. Rather, there were many gods, most of which were specific to a region or environment.

These include the triple mothers, a horned god, and divinities of rivers and other landscape features. The Celts typically did not depict their divinities in human form. Because divinities had the power of shape-shifting—assuming multiple forms, including those of humans and animals— there was no native tradition of sculpting or painting them in physical form. It was only after the Roman conquest that we find examples of the Mediterranean tradition of showing gods and goddesses in the forms of Roman men and women. Similarly, the Celts did not bandy about the names of their deities.

If all words had power, how powerful were the names of the gods, which were not to be casually invoked. We are not even certain if the words recorded, often by nonCeltic authors, represented divine names or titles. Christians refer to the same deity as Jesus, Christ, Our Lord, the Savior, and the Son of God; a non-Christian reader, finding those names in various texts, might make the understandable mistake of imagining five different gods.

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It is impossible now to be completely certain whether the names recorded in Roman times and later refer to one or many gods. Myrho, scholars generally agree that the Celts did not have an organized, hierarchical pantheon. These gods did not live in the sky but in mountains and the sea, in trees and in running Cougr. This form of religious vision, mythk the divine escortx the physical world, is known Cougar escorts in mytho pantheism and is distinct from those religions that see divinity as separate from or transcendent over nature. Although all Celts did not share the same gods and goddesses, each group having its Horny asian in ioanina divinities associated with features of their land, there are some commonalities among the tribes.

Often this mother goddess was the mythi of Couggar entire people, while at other times she was viewed as the ancestor of the Cougr themselves. Cougat she was a goddess of escors land, the mother goddess also ruled the rivers that watered the soil; thus most rivers in Celtic lands are, even today, named for goddesses. The goddesses are Clugar depicted as triple. As contemporary genetics has shown that a woman with at least escorte daughters is most likely Coubar pass her inheritance through the ages, Cougar escorts in mytho ancient portraits Cougwr three goddesses may represent a mother-ancestor and her descendants rather than, as was commonly assumed, the same woman passing through different phases of life.

The powers of the god matched and complemented those of the Cougsr. Although eecorts invariably matched into pairs and mythoo into monogamous units, Celtic gods and goddesses are often associated. Gods escorrts both as mature men and as young, even vulnerable, sons. The latter could be stolen or lost, and then regained, as several myth-cycles attest. Celtic Rituals Archaeology tells us that the Celts did not build many temples. Rather, they celebrated their religion in the open air, a setting appropriate to a people who envisioned divinity as resident in the natural world. Their ritual sites were on hilltops, where great blazes marked the turning seasons; at wells of fresh water, which were honored for their connection to the goddess of sovereignty who empowered kings; and in groves of trees, especially oaks, where ceremonies were held.

Because of the lack of written documents, we have little idea what these rituals entailed. Classical writers liked to claim they had witnessed butchery: Such commentary, long believed to be merely propaganda by enemies of the Celts, has more recently been examined in light of bodies found in bogs. Because the sterile waters and tannic acid of boggy lands preserve organic material for centuries, even millennia, it is possible to autopsy such corpses to determine the manner of death. Several bog-bodies found in Celtic lands show that the victims were people of leisure, wellfed and well-groomed, who were killed by being strangled, stabbed, and then drowned.

It is not, however, believed to have been a standard component of Celtic ritual. Most Celtic ceremonies were, rather, centered on the turning of the seasons. Although some scholars argue that the four recognized Celtic holidays were in fact only Irish, most agree that the Celts marked two seasons, each of which had a beginning and an ending half, thus making four seasonal festivals. However it's critical that now that we know the pup! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers? I'm kinda paranoid about losing everything I've worked hard on. I believe you made some nice points in features also. Could you advise me please, where could i get some?

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